The earliest well known rulers of Nepal were the Kirats or Kiratis and often mentioned as Kiratas (Kirata Kingdom) in Hindu texts, documented references them ruling Nepal from 3102 B. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of Lichhavi dynasty have been found to rule Nepal after the Kirat monarchical dynasty.
Gopal Bansa, cow herding tribes are said to be one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley however the evidence and sources are lacking. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who later renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, and came to be known as Gautama Buddha (traditionally dated 563–483 BCE).
Nepal is also a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative.
The military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia and is notable for its Gurkha history, particularly during the world wars, and has been a significant contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations.
According to the opinion of Baburam Acharya, the prominent historian of Nepal, Lichhavies were able to establish their independent Lichhavi rule by abolishing Kirati state that prevailed in Nepal around 250 AD.
The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late 8th century and was followed by a Newar or Thakuri era.