These boundaries are nothing more than axial lines which are a feature that people are biased towards when relating to space; for example one axial line determinant is gravity (Mc Namara & Shelton, 2001; Kim & Penn, 2004).Axial lines aid everyone in apportioning our perceptions into regions.Layout is potentially the first method of navigation that people learn to utilize; its workings reflect our most basic understandings of the world.Hermer and Spelke (1994) determined that when toddlers begin to walk, around eighteen months, they navigate by their sense of the world's layout.Boundaries, though, are not the only determinants of layout.Clustering also demonstrates another important property of our relation to spatial conceptions.for instance, allowing someone to navigate through a familiar city.
That is to say that people remember the general layout of a particular space and then "cue target locations" located within that spatial set.
Indeed, it would seem that a sojourning toddler's world is a place of axial lines and contrasting boundaries.
Mc Namara, Hardy and Hirtle identified region membership as a major building block of anyone's cognitive map (1989).
It is often argued that in both humans and animals, spatial memories are summarized as a cognitive map.
Spatial memory has representations within working, short-term memory and long-term memory.